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Solar panel installation: A comprehensive guide for beginners

Mikael Kristianslund

Two men holding solar panels while installing on a roof
July 26, 2023

Thinking about putting solar panels on your roof? It's good to get a handle on what the installation journey is going to involve.

Installing solar panels involves a few steps. First, you assess your roof's suitability. Next, you choose the right solar panel types and components. Then, you secure the necessary permissions.

With proper planning and execution, you can ensure a smooth installation and efficient solar system performance for years to come.

Not sure if your property is a good fit for solar panels? Our energy efficiency recommendation tool is a great place to begin to see savings potential and get a cost estimate.

Key Takeaways

  • Site assessment is critical for determining the optimal location and configuration of solar panels.
  • The choice of solar panel types and components impacts the system's performance and efficiency.
  • Obtaining necessary planning permissions and permits is essential to comply with local regulations.

Start by assessing your roof

Before installing solar panels, it is crucial to conduct a thorough assessment to ensure optimal performance of the system. This process evaluates various factors, including shading analysis, roof condition, and orientation.

Shading Analysis

Shading plays a significant role in a solar panel system's performance, as it can reduce the amount of energy produced. Conducting a shading analysis involves evaluating the potential shadow impacts from nearby buildings, trees, or other obstructions.

Roof Condition

Inspecting the roof's condition is vital to ensure it can support the solar panels and offer a long-lasting installation. Factors to consider include:

  • Roof type: You can install solar panels on various roof materials, including asphalt shingles, metal roofs, and tiles. Some roof types might require additional support structures or specific mounting hardware.
  • Roof condition: The roof should be in good condition without any signs of leaks, rot, or significant wear. Replacing or repairing a roof after installing solar panels can be costly and time-consuming.
  • Roof space: Adequate space is necessary for solar panels to function efficiently. Consider the size of the system, proximity to roof edges, and the potential need for future expansions.


Proper orientation is crucial for getting the most out of a solar panel system. In the Northern Hemisphere, panels should face south to capture the best sunlight, while it's the opposite in the Southern Hemisphere.

Remember, every location is different, so finding the right balance is key during a site assessment. Take into account shading, roof condition, and orientation to ensure a successful solar panel installation that suits your property perfectly.

Solar Panel Types

When deciding on solar panel installations, it's crucial to understand the different types of solar panels available. This section covers three primary types: Monocrystalline, Polycrystalline, and Thin-Film.

Monocrystalline solar panels

Monocrystalline solar panels are known for their efficiency and durability. They are made from a single crystal structure, resulting in a uniform dark appearance.

These panels have the highest efficiency, often reaching up to 22% under optimal conditions.

Due to their sophisticated manufacturing process, monocrystalline solar panels can be more expensive than other types.

However, their long lifespan and high efficiency make them a popular choice for homeowners seeking a reliable, high-performance solar system.

Polycrystalline solar panels

Polycrystalline solar panels consist of multiple crystal structures, which give them a distinct bluish appearance.

While slightly less efficient than monocrystalline panels, they can still have efficiency ratings between 15% and 20%.

The lower production costs of polycrystalline panels make them a more affordable option for solar installations.

Homeowners who want a cost-effective solution without sacrificing too much efficiency may find these panels suitable for their needs.

Passivated Emitter and Rear Cell (PERC) panels

PERC solar panels are basically an improved version of the traditional monocrystalline cell.

It enhances the efficiency by having an extra layer in surface of the cell that reflects light back into the cell. This increases the amount of solar radiation that gets absorbed.

Since they are more efficient, you can get away with having a smaller physical footprint, making them ideal for smaller roofs.

Thin-Film solar panels

Thin-Film solar panels are stand out for their flexibility and lightweight design. They are perfect for buildings with unique roof styles or limited weight capacity.

They are available in various materials, such as amorphous silicon (a-Si), cadmium telluride (CdTe), or copper indium gallium selenide (CIGS). Although they have lower efficiency (10% to 12%), they offer advantages in terms of aesthetics and ease of installation.

The lower cost per Watt for Thin-Film solar panels may appeal to businesses or homeowners with large-scale installations or unique architectural requirements.

Each solar panel type presents advantages and disadvantages, depending on factors such as efficiency, cost, and aesthetic preferences.

Components Selection

When planning a solar panel installation, proper selection of components plays a vital role in the efficiency and longevity of the system. In this section, we will discuss Inverters, Mounting Systems, Cables and Connectors.


Inverters are responsible for converting the direct current (DC) generated by solar panels into alternating current (AC) that can be used by household appliances.

There are two main types of inverters: string inverters and microinverters.

String inverters connect all solar panels in a series, while microinverters are installed on each individual panel.

Microinverters have the advantage of providing better performance in shaded areas and enable more flexibility in panel orientation. However, they tend to have a higher initial cost compared to string inverters.

Mounting Systems

The mounting system is crucial in ensuring the stability and proper alignment of solar panels.

Two common types of mounting systems are roof-mounted and ground-mounted systems.

Roof-mounted systems are suitable for most residential installations, as they take advantage of existing structures and don't require additional space.

Ground-mounted systems, on the other hand, can be advantageous for large-scale installations or situations where a roof-mounted system is not possible.

Proper selection of mounting equipment ensures that solar panels are securely fastened and well-ventilated, preventing overheating and improving efficiency.

Cables and Connectors

Cables and connectors are important for transmitting electricity between the solar panel array, inverter, and other components of the solar energy system. Selecting the appropriate cables and connectors is crucial to minimise power loss and ensure a safe installation.

  • Cable size: Choose cables of the appropriate size (measured in cross-sectional area) based on the system's current and voltage ratings. Larger cables have lower resistance, leading to reduced power loss.
  • Cable type: Use outdoor-rated, UV-resistant cables, such as those labelled XLPE or PV1-F, to withstand harsh weather conditions.
  • Connectors: Opt for high-quality connectors that are compatible with your chosen solar panels and inverter. Connectors should be watertight and have a secure locking mechanism to prevent accidental disconnection.

Remember to consult a professional solar installer to ensure that the chosen components are compatible and meet the requirements of your specific solar panel installation.

Planning and Permissions

When installing solar panels, it's essential to consider planning and permissions. This section will discuss local regulations in the UK and grid connection requirements.

Local Regulations UK

In many cases, the installation of solar panels on residential buildings in the UK is considered 'permitted development', meaning there is no need to apply for planning permission.

However, some limits and conditions must be met to qualify for these permitted development rights. Be mindful of the following points:

  • Solar panels should not protrude over the highest part of the roof, excluding the chimney.
  • Panels should be within 200mm of the surface of the roof where they are placed.
  • The external appearance of the building should be minimised as far as possible.

It's important to consult with your local planning authority to check if planning permission is required. Some areas, like conservation areas or listed buildings, may have additional restrictions.

Grid Connection

Connecting your solar panel system to the electricity grid involves several steps:

  1. Choose an installer: Select a certified installer who is knowledgeable about local regulations and can ensure a smooth installation process.
  2. Apply for grid connection: The installer will help you obtain necessary approvals and permits from the Distribution Network Operator (DNO).
  3. Meter installation: Once the system is installed and connected, a meter will be installed to measure the electricity generated and fed back to the grid.
  4. Sign a Power Purchase Agreement (PPA): This agreement allows you to sell the excess electricity generated by your solar panels back to the grid. The installer or the energy supplier can help you with this.

Remember, each step may have additional requirements and fees depending on the size of your solar panel system and local regulations.

It's best to consult with your chosen installer and the DNO to ensure a smooth process and avoid any issues during the grid connection process.

Installation Process

Safety Procedures

Before beginning the installation process, it is important to ensure safety measures are in place. Make sure to wear proper protective gear, such as gloves, safety goggles, and non-slip shoes. Disconnect the main electrical supply to the installation site to prevent any electrical hazards.

Mounting and Securing

To mount and secure the solar panels, first choose an appropriate location on your roof or any other suitable surface.

Measure and mark the locations where the mounting brackets will be affixed. Install the brackets by drilling holes into the surface and fastening them using bolts or screws.

After mounting the brackets, carefully lift the solar panels onto the brackets and attach them securely. Ensure the panels are properly aligned to maximise sunlight exposure.


Once the panels are mounted, they need to be connected to one another and the inverter. Run the necessary wiring between the panels and the inverter, ensuring that all connections are tight and secure. Avoid loose or dangling wires, as this can pose a safety hazard.

Connect the appropriate wires to the inverter, which will convert the direct current (DC) generated by the panels into alternating current (AC) to be used by household appliances.

System Testing

After completing the wiring process, it's time to test the solar panel system.

Reconnect the main electrical supply and switch on the inverter. Monitor the system to check if it is producing electricity, and verify that the electricity generated is being fed back into your home's electrical grid.

Inspect the setup for any issues, such as loose connections, and fix them if necessary. Once you are confident that the system is working properly, your solar panel installation is complete.



Solar panels generally require very little maintenance; however, it is essential to keep them clean for optimal performance.

A layer of dust, dirt, or bird droppings can reduce the solar panels' efficiency. It is recommended to inspect your panels regularly and clean them when necessary using a long pole with a squeegee at the end and lukewarm water.

If you live in an area with heavy snowfall, gently remove the snow with a soft brush or squeegee so as not to damage the panels. Remember, never use hot water on cold panels or abrasive cleaning products.


Conducting periodic inspections can help identify any potential issues with your solar panel system. To ensure your solar panels continue to operate efficiently, it is vital to:

  • Check for any broken or damaged panels
  • Examine the surrounding area for any shading that could obstruct sunlight
  • Ensure that the mounting hardware is secure and in good condition
  • Inspect electrical connections for any signs of wear or corrosion

If you are unsure about conducting an inspection yourself, consider hiring a professional solar panel technician to carry out the task.


In the event of any issues or malfunctions with your solar panels, troubleshooting can help identify and resolve the problem. Keep an eye out for common issues, like a drop in energy production or visible damage to the panels. If you encounter any of these problems, consider the following tips:

  • Inspect the wiring for any defects or loose connections
  • Ensure all components are functioning correctly, including inverters and batteries
  • Consult your solar panel manufacturer's technical support or warranty assistance for guidance

In some cases, you might need to call a professional technician to assess and fix the issue. To minimise the chances of encountering problems, always adhere to the recommended cleaning and inspection practices.

Frequently Asked Questions

Can you install solar panels on your own?

Yes, it is possible to install solar panels on your own, though it requires knowledge of electrical systems and attention to safety measures.

However, hiring a professional solar installer is recommended, as they have the necessary expertise and can handle the installation process more efficiently and safely, ensuring optimal system performance.

Which direction should solar panels face?

In the UK, solar panels should ideally face south to maximise their exposure to sunlight throughout the day. However, southeast and southwest orientations can also work well.

The optimal tilt angle depends on the location, but generally, a tilt angle between 30 and 40 degrees is considered adequate for most regions in the UK.

How long does a solar panel installation take?

The installation time for a solar panel system varies depending on the size of the system, roof complexity, and weather conditions. Typically, residential solar panel installations can take anywhere from one to three days. Larger commercial installations may require a week or more.

What are the legal requirements for solar panel installation in the UK?

In the UK, there are several legal requirements for solar panel installations, including planning permissions and building regulations compliance.

For most residential installations, you may not need planning permission, but it's essential to check your local authority's guidelines.

You must also ensure the installation complies with the Building Regulations, particularly Part A (structure) and Part P (electrical safety) requirements. For specific projects, you may need to consult with a certified electrician or building control officer.

What is the cost of installing solar panels?

The cost of solar panel installation varies depending on the size and type of the system, location, and labour charges.

On average, the cost of installing a residential solar energy system in the UK ranges from £6,000 to £10,000. The payback period is approximately 7 to 20 years.

Financial incentives, such as the Smart Export Guarantee can also affect the overall cost of the system.

How can I find the best solar installation company?

To find the best solar installation company, research different providers, ask for recommendations from friends or family and read online reviews. It's important to compare quotes from several installers to make sure you get the best price.

It's crucial to choose a company that uses high-quality components and has a proven track record.

At Sparkway, we are here to assist you in the process. We have vetted expert installers in your area, help collect multiple quotes to guarantee the best price for your solar installation. With our help, you can confidently choose the right solar installation company.

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